What is pyrolysis?
Pyrolysis (Greek: pyro – fire; lysis – separation) is a thermochemical decomposition of organic material which takes place at temperatures above 400ºC in the absence of air (oxygen).
It is important to note that in the absence of oxygen, there is no incineration.
Pyrolysis has been proven to successfully treat homogeneous carbon-containing materials, e.g. in the production of charcoal, activated carbon, methanol from wood, coke from coal, syngas and biochar from biomass etc. Pyrolysis is an existing, proven and operating technology, particularly widespread in Asia, especially, in Japan, China and India. New facilities are currently being built in Europe.
Inecsys Teesside technology advantages
Industrially employed, technologically and commercially proven technology with proprietary upgrades and developments;
Low environmental profile and overall negative carbon footprint: virtually no residues or tails requiring landfilling (less than 1%); closed circuit water cooling management system;
The technology addresses the resource scarcity and energy security challenges aiming to recover valuable resources from waste and substitute crude oil use;
Built in full compliance with EU / UK environmental and H&S regulations.
Inecsys Teesside process stages
Prior to feeding into the pyrolysis reactor, end-of-life tyres are shredded into small tyre chips and stored into silos to ensure consistent supply of material.
Pyrolysis takes place when carbon-containing raw materials (tyres) are heated in an enclosed air-tight reactor. In the reactor, organic material is not combusted (oxidised), it is efficiently decomposed into syngas, which is later cooled down and the pyrolysis oil is condensed and then collected in the oil tank. The non-condesable gases are used to power the boiler producing heat for the primary reaction. All boiler flue gases are cleaned in the gas treatment system.
Steel scrap is recovered at two points in the process: first, during the mechanical shredding of tyres and, secondly, using a magnetic separator after the pyrolysis reaction.
The remaining solids represent carbon black, which undergoes further uprgading by shredding and pelletising to manufacture a commercially attractive product.
A number of high-quality products are produced as a result of waste tyre pyrolysis process:-
Pyrolysis oil is an environmentally friendly substitute of hydrocarbon material. Pyrolysis oil can be utilised as a substitute of crude oil in the oil refining process sharing some qualities of the light and sweet crudes (the fuel has less than 1% sulphur content). Another common use is as feedstock in the production of transport or heating fuels. It can also be upgraded to diesel fuel or used to generate renewable electricity.
Carbon black is non-dangerous chemical substance widely used as a colouring pigment and a reinforcing filler in tyres and rubber and plastics. Generally speaking, any rubber or plastic product that is black in colour contains carbon black it it. Certain grades of carbon black are used in children's toys and food trays and disposable cutlery.
Traditionally, carbon black is produced from heavy petroleum products; thus, from the environmental standpoint, carbon black recovered from waste tyres is beneficial to the environment.
High quality carbon steel forming the tyre cord is fully recovered and recycled, reducing the need for energy-intensive iron ore refining.
Gases and heat
Combustible gases produced in the process are utilised to power the process. Excess heat can be utilised heating purposes.